Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
8th International Caucasian Symposium on Polymers and Advanced Materials
Dear Colleagues, on August 1-3 of 2023 in Tbilisi takes place 8th International Caucasian Symposium on Polymers and Advanced Materials was organized by Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. The purpose of the conference is to encourage scientists working in polymer and advanced chemistry to present their investigations dedicated to problems and discoveries in the above-mentioned fields. Also, ICSP & AM 8 will help to introduce effectively innovative scientific research of Georgian and Caucasian scientific teams, which are less known in the world scientific society. Therefore, it will lead to the development of polymer science and will be helpful in solving the problems, which face the modern world. The conference will give a push to new international linkages and joint research. For scientists from all over the world, this is a chance to visit a beautiful country - Georgia. Georgia occupies an area of about 70000 sq km (population 5,5 million). It takes up the central and Western pairs of Transcaucasia. In the West, it is open the Black Sea. Georgia is a mountainous country. In the North rises the greater Caucasus system of mountain ranges which is situated at the boundary of two climatic zones - moderate and subtropical. There are many rivers and they flow into the Black and Caspian seas. Borders: in the North - Russia; in the south - Armenia, Turkey; in the south-east - Azerbaijan; in the west - the Black Sea. Georgia is rich in mineral resources. The Republic has about 1000 mineral springs, which vary in their chemical content. The best known are the springs at Borjomi. Four hundred varieties of the grapevine cultivated in Georgia make her a land of classical wine-making.
Georgia is the ancient country with more than 25 century history. The capital city Tbilisi (where the conference takes place) is capital from 6th century. In Georgia you can find a lot of historical monuments. The Georgians themselves tell the following story about how they came to possess the land they deem the most beautiful in the world. When God was distributing portions of the world to all the peoples of the Earth, the Georgians were having a party and doing some serious drinking. As a result they arrived late and were told by God that all the land had already been distributed. When they replied that they were late only because they had been lifting their glasses in praise of Him, God was pleased and gave the Georgians that part of Earth he had been reserving for himself.
Georgia is the homeland of the oldest human who ventured out of Africa and traveled to Europe. In 1999 and 2001 in Dmanisi, Georgia, was found fossil hominid skulls and jaws.
The town of Dmanisi is first mentioned in the 9th century as a possession of the Arab emirate of Tbilisi, though the area had been settled since the Early Bronze Age.
An Orthodox Christian cathedral – “Dmansis Sioni” – was built here in the 6th century. Located on the confluence of trading routes and cultural influences, Dmanisi was of particular importance, growing into a major commercial center of medieval Georgia. The town was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the 1080s, but was later liberated by the Georgian kings David the Builder and Demetrios I between 1123 and 1125. The Turco-Mongol armies under Timur laid waste to the town in the 14th century. Sacked again by the Turkomans in 1486, Dmanisi never recovered and declined to a scarcely inhabited village by the 18th century.
There are only 14 different alphabet in use in modern world and one of them is Georgian.
The Georgian alphabet is the script currently used to write the Georgian language and other Kartvelian languages (such as Mingrelian), and occasionally other languages of the Caucasus (such as Ossetic and Abkhaz in the 1940s).
The modern Georgian alphabet has thirty-three letters. Originally it had more, but some letters have become obsolete.
The Georgian script makes no distinction between upper and lower case.
Georgian historical tradition attributes the invention of the Georgian alphabet to Parnavaz I of Iberia in the 3rd century BC.
There are other interpretations. One of the more contentious is that the similar alphabet called as asomtavruli was invented in 412 BC by Georgian priests of the cult of Matra (Persian Mithra), and reformed in 284 BC by king Parnavaz I of Iberia.
The Golden Fleece
Ancient Greek legends told of a fabulously wealthy land where Jason and the Argonauts stole the Golden Fleece from King Aetes with the help of his daughter Medea. It was a distant land that was reached by the Black Sea and down the River Phasis. The actual site of this legendary kingdom has never been found but the Greeks must have been greatly impressed by the Colchis region of Georgia, through which the River Phasis (currently the Rioni River) runs, for such stories to have been born.
Georgia is one of the most ancient countries in the world with an uninterrupted tradition of viticulture and winemaking. In fact, cultivated grape pips were discovered that indicate that Georgia has been making wine for some 8000 years, leading experts to believe that Georgia is the birthplace of wine. Numerous artefacts dating back IV-III and older have also been found adding evidence to the fact that Georgia is probably the oldest wine country in the world.
525 indigenous grape varieties of Georgia. Nowadays, about 25 varieties are used in the industry.
Georgian winemaking – The Qvevri (clay vessel used for fermentation of wine) Method is listed as part of UNESCO Intangible Heritage.
Viticulture is an integral part of Georgia’s history. Saint Nino of Cappadocia came to enlighten Georgia with a cross, made of a vine. Even today the vine remains one of the symbols of Christianity in Georgia. It is interesting to note that in the 11th century, in Ikhalto Academy (Kakheti, East Georgia), among others, winemaking was taught. In those times Georgian wine was considered as rather expensive product and was exported abroad in large quantities. Wine was made according to ancient recipes and traditions.
Georgian wine-making history is connected directly to the history, culture and religion of Georgian people. Georgian creative nature and particular love for vine and wine were expressed in Georgian habits, architecture, painting, poetry, songs and other fields of art. History confirms that there existed about 500 breed of grapes on the territory of Georgia. Nowadays 27 of them are remained and widely used.
For Georgian viticulture and winemaking, correct use of unique climate conditions and preserving centuries-old experience and wine production methods is highly important. In Georgia, a country with rich culture of wine-growing and wine-making, the tradition of using the geographical name of the place of origin as the appellation controlled of a wine has a long history. Traditionally, Georgian wines carry the name of the source region, district or village.
Depending on the color of wine is divided into White, Pink and Red. It depends not only on the type of grape used, but also on the technology of wine.